Outcomes Research Evidence
• Multiple studies have shown that the cardiovascular examination is a sensitive highly specific and cost-effective skill. At the same time, national studies of Internal Medicine and Family Practice trainees have clearly demonstrated that cardiovascular bedside skills are sorely lacking.
• The solution suggested in these studies is repetition and feedback through simulation technology and testing outcomes.
• The use of "Harvey" provides a mechanism to remedy the problem. Multiple studies have demonstrated "Harvey's" effectiveness for teaching and testing. An NHLBI sponsored national multicenter study carried out at 5 medical schools clearly demonstrated that students trained with "Harvey" score significantly higher on examinations involving real patients. However, "Harvey" can only be effective if it is made part of the required curriculum and outcomes are tested. Add to this a faculty "champion" of "Harvey," and students will learn important bedside skills that will transfer to their live patients.
Selected research publications include:
- Gordon MS. Cardiology patient simulator development of an animated manikin to teach cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 1974;34:350-355.
- Gordon MS, Ewy GA, Felner JM, et al. A cardiology patient simulator for continuing education of family physicians. Journal of Family Practice. 1981;13:353-6.
- Ewy GA, Felner JM, Juul D, Mayer JW, Sajid A, Waugh RA. Test of a cardiology patient simulator with students in fourth-year electives. Journal of Medical Education. 1987;62:738-43.
- Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Gordon DL, et al. Effectiveness of a cardiology review course for internal medicine residents using simulation technology and deliberate practice. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2002;14(4):223-228.
- Hatala R, Issenberg SB, Kassen BO, Cole G, Bacchus CM, Scalese RJ. Assessing the Relationship between Cardiac Physical Examination technique and Accurate Bedisde Diagnosis during an OSCE. Academic Medicine, 82(10 Suppl):S26-S29.2007.
- Hatala R, Scalese RJ, Cole G, Bacchus M, Kassen B, Issenberg SB. Development and Validation of a Cardiac Findings Checklist for Use With Simulator-Based Assessments of Cardiac Physical Examination Competence. Simul Healthc. 2009 Spring;4(1):17-21.
- Butter J, McGaghie WC, Cohen ER, Kaye M, Wayne DB. Simulation-based Mastery Learning Improves Cardiac Auscultation Skills in Medical Students. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 Aug;25(8):780-5.
- Brydges R, Peets A, Issenberg SB, Regehr G. Divergence in student and educator conceptual structures during auscultation training. Medical Education 2013;47(2):198-209.
- Multak N, Newell K, Spear S, Scalese RJ, Issenberg SB. A multi-institutional study using simulation to teach cardiopulmonary physical examination and diagnosis skills to physician assistant students. J Physician Assist Educ. 2015;26(2):70-6. doi: 10.1097
- Lin W, Lee GK, Loh JP, Tay EL, Sia W, Lau TC, Hooi SC, Poh KK1. Effectiveness of early cardiology undergraduate learning using simulation on retention, application of learning and level of confidence during clinical clerkships. Singapore Med J. 2015 Feb;56(2):98-102.