Research - References


National multicenter studies have been carried out to assess the feasibility of implementing a 4-year UMedic computer curriculum and to assess the skills gained by using the UMedic system. The implementation of a four-year UMedic Multimedia Computer Curriculum in Cardiology involved six medical schools: Miami, Emory, Iowa, Illinois, Florida and Duke. A total of 1,586 students reviewed 6,131 programs. The 4-year curriculum was found to be feasible and highly accepted. Success was dependent upon local leadership and a willingness to change.

Another study was carried out to determine if students trained with the UMedic system can acquire and retain core bedside cardiology skills. Five medical centers participated: Duke, Emory, Miami, Mt. Sinai and Northwestern, with a total of 208 senior medical students. Students trained in a clerkship that included UMedic had significantly higher increases in their pre- to post-test bedside skills scores than those trained in a standard clerkship.

Taken together, these studies clearly demonstrate that the UMedic system enhances bedside skills when made part of the curriculum and outcomes are tested.

See below for a list of selected references:



  • Scalese RJ, Obeso VT, Issenberg SB. Simulation technology for skills training and competency assessment in medical education. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(Suppl 1):46-49, 2008.
  • Issenberg SB, Scalese RJ. Best evidence on high-fidelity simulation: What clinical teachers need to know. The Clinical Teacher, 4:73-77, 2007.
  • Issenberg SB. Michael S. Gordon and the Center for Research in Medical Education. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(4):233-237, 2006.
  • Issenberg SB. The scope of simulation-based healthcare education. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(4):203-208, 2006.
  • McGaghie WC, Issenberg SB, Petrusa ER, Scalese RJ. Effect of practice on standardized learning outcomes in simulation- based medical education. Medical Education, 40(8):792-797, 2006.
  • Hatala R, Kassen BO, Nishikawa J, Cole G, Issenberg SB. Integration of simulation technology in The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's internal medicine specialty examination: A descriptive report. Academic Medicine, 80:554-556, 2005.
  • Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Petrusa ER, Gordon DL, Scalese RJ. Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: A BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 27(1):10-28, 2005.
  • Obeso VT, Gordon DL, Issenberg SB, Baker J, et al. A multi-center study to provide evidence of construct validity in computer-based outcome measures of neurology bedside skills. Academic Medicine, 80(Suppl 10):S71-S74, 2005.
  • Millos RT, Gordon DL, Issenberg SB, Reynolds PT, et al. Development of a reliable multimedia computer-based measure of clinical skills in bedside neurology. Academic Medicine, 78(10):S52-S54, 2003.
  • Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Gordon DL, et al. Effectiveness of a cardiology review course for internal medicine residents using simulation technology and deliberate practice. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 14(4):223-228, 2002.
  • Issenberg SB, Gordon MS, Gordon DL, et al. Simulation and new learning technologies. Medical Teacher, 23(1):16-23, 2001.
  • Issenberg SB, Gordon MS, Stewart GM, Felner JM. Bedside cardiology skills training for the physician assistant using simulation technology. Perspectives on Physician Assistant Education, 11(2):99-103, 2000.
  • Gordon MS, Issenberg, SB, Mayer JW, Felner JM. Developments in the use of simulators and multimedia computer systems in medical education. Medical Teacher, 21:32-36, 1999.
  • Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Hart IR, Mayer JW, et al. Simulation technology for health professional skills training and assessment. JAMA, 282:861-866, 1999.
  • Issenberg SB, Petrusa ER, McGaghie WC, Felner JM, et al. Effectiveness of a computer-based system to teach bedside cardiology. Academic Medicine, 74(Suppl):S93-S95, 1999.
  • Petrusa ER, Issenberg SB, Mayer JW, Felner JM, et al. Implementation of a four-year multimedia computer curriculum in cardiology at six medical schools. Academic Medicine, 74:123-129, 1999.
  • Waugh RA, Mayer JW, Ewy GA, et al. Multimedia computer-assisted instruction in cardiology. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155:197-203, 1995.
  • Sajid AW, Ewy GA, Felner JM, et al. Cardiology patient simulator and computer-assisted instruction technologies in bedside teaching. Medical Education, 24:512-517, 1990.


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